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Babban Pharma YA BAYYANA: GASKIYA MAI BUDE IDO Game da Gwajin Magungunan da Kuna Buƙatar Sanin

da BABBAR SIRRI cewa BIG Pharma yana tunanin kun yi wauta da yawa don ku fahimta!

Matsalar gwajin maganin dabbobi

Magunguna, mice, DNA, da kuma cin hanci da rashawa na Big Pharma

Ji! Labarin da LifeLine Media AI Darius ya karanta.
Ji! Labarin da LifeLine Media AI Emily ya karanta.
GARANTIN GASKIYA (References::Takardun bincike-bincike na tsara: 8 kafofin] [Mujallu na ilimi/shafukan yanar gizo: 6 kafofin] [Gidan yanar gizon gwamnati: 4 tushen]…
Duba ƙarin[Ƙididdiga na hukuma: 2 kafofin] [Takardun kotu na hukuma: 1 tushen] [Kai tsaye daga tushe: 1 tushen] [Babban hukuma da amintattun gidajen yanar gizo: 2 Sources]

Da zarar lafiya da inganci, yanzu mai mutuwa. Me yasa ake tunawa da kwayoyi da yawa?

[karanta_mita]

16 Fabrairu 2022 | By Richard Ahern - Shin yakamata mu amince da makauniyar cewa duk magunguna suna da lafiya kuma suna da tasiri saboda FDA ta faɗi haka? Shin ilimin kimiyyar da ke bayan masana'antar harhada magunguna koyaushe cikakke ne?

A cikin 2022, waɗannan su ne mafi mahimmanci tambayoyin da ya kamata mu yi!

A wannan talifin, za mu amsa waɗannan tambayoyi masu muhimmanci.

Muna rayuwa a cikin wani zamani da ba a taɓa yin irinsa ba na a annobar duniya lokacin da tambayar ingancin maganin alurar riga kafi da amincin magani ba ta taɓa kasancewa cikin tunani ba. Da yawa daga cikinmu suna tambayar amincin magunguna, alluran rigakafi, da hanyoyin kwantar da hankali, amma samun kwakkwarar hujja don goyan bayan wani abu ya kusan yi wuya ga memba na jama'a.

A zahiri, mun kasance a yanzu cewa duk lokacin da wani ya yi kuskuren yin tambaya game da ingancin magunguna ko amincin alurar riga kafi, abu ne da ya zama ruwan dare don ganin an dakatar da mutumin saboda “yaɗa rashin fahimta” a kafafen sada zumunta.

Da zarar an amince da magunguna ta FDA, gwamnatoci da Big Tech bukatar cewa kada mu taba tambayar lafiyarsa. Wadanda suka yi kuskuren tambayar "kimiyya" na gwajin magani ana sanya su a matsayin masu ra'ayin makirci.

Duk da haka…

An sami jimlar tunowar magunguna 12,787 da FDA ta bayar tun daga 2012.

A matsakaita, ana tuno da magunguna 1,279 kowace shekara. Amurka ce ke kan gaba tare da tunawa da mutane 12,028, kasar da aka fi tunawa da ita ita ce Kanada, tare da kwatankwacin 554 da aka tuno da kwayoyi.

Waɗancan alkaluma yakamata su gigita ku zuwa ga ainihin ku, kowane ɗayan waɗannan FDA ta tuna "Whoops, yi hakuri mun rikice" ta FDA.

Wannan labarin da aka fito da shi yana da nufin bayyana dalilin da ke tattare da yawan tunowar miyagun ƙwayoyi.

Fiye da faɗaɗa wannan labarin yana nufin nuna cewa ba ku “ƙi-kimiyya” ba ne idan kuna tambayar kimiyyar da ke bayan gwajin magunguna. 

Wannan ba ka'idar makirci ba ce, wannan gaskiya ce da aka buga a kimiyance cewa Big Pharma ya share karkashin tulu.

Abubuwan da ke damun bayanan da aka gabatar a ƙasa an shafe su ta hanyar al'ummar kimiyya kuma ba za a iya samun ambaton su a cikin manyan kafofin watsa labaru ba. Abin takaici, saboda ilimin kimiyyar da ke tattare da gwajin magunguna yana buƙatar fahimtar ilimin halittu, ba tare da ambaton wasu tunani ba, mai yiwuwa yawancin 'yan jarida ba su da fahimta, suna da matukar tsoro, ko kuma sun yi kasala don ba da rahoto a kai. Hakan kuma ya sa jama'a ke da wuya su fahimci abin da ke tattare da shi, wanda hakan ne ma ya sa wannan bayanin ya dade a cikin inuwar.

Bugu da ƙari kuma, mafi munin dalili shine gaskiyar yadda ake gwada magunguna za ta lalata Big Pharma saboda yana haifar da shakku game da lafiyar dubban kwayoyi. alurar riga kafi, da kuma hanyoyin kwantar da hankali waɗanda aka riga aka “amince” don amfanin ɗan adam. Idan muka yi la'akari da gaske, muna iya ganin gagarumin ƙoƙarin sake kimantawa na waɗannan magunguna tare da tuno da adadi mai yawa.

Shin Big Pharma yana da da'a don sanya lafiya akan riba?

Da kyar!

Har sai wannan mummunan lahani tare da lafiyar miyagun ƙwayoyi ya sami kulawa na yau da kullum, da wuya mu ga wani ƙoƙari da ake yi, amma alhakin waɗanda suka sani su ci gaba da yin kururuwa game da shi har sai kamfanonin magunguna sun ba da tabbacin cewa an gyara shi kuma an dauki matakan da suka dace. wurin hana matsalolin nan gaba.

Mun at MediaLine Media za su haskaka wannan binciken kuma ku yi shi ta hanyar da kowa zai iya fahimta, komai fahimtar ku game da kimiyya. Muna da nufin sanya wannan bayanin ya isa ga kowa da kowa, ba tare da juzu'in kimiyya ba, ta yadda bayan karanta wannan za ku fahimci matsalolin gwajin magunguna da amincin magunguna.

Rayuwa na cikin hadari…

A taƙaice, wannan binciken ya shafi wani lahani na kwayoyin halitta a cikin rodents lab, mai yiwuwa sakamakon kiwo, wanda ke nufin yadda suke mu'amala da kwayoyi ba dabi'a ba ce. Har ma mafi mahimmanci, wannan yana haifar da shakku game da duk gwajin magunguna akan dabbobin da aka haifa a cikin labs.

Shin kun shirya don koyon abin da Big Pharma ke tunanin kun yi wauta da yawa don ku fahimta?

Table da ke ciki

FDA ta amince da magungunan da aka tuno

FDA lissafin
FDA ta amince da magungunan da aka cire daga kasuwa tun 2012.

Bi ilimin kimiyya

Sau nawa ka ji jami'an gwamnati suna cewa "ku bi kimiyya" idan ana maganar miyagun ƙwayoyi da alurar riga kafi tasiri?

Don haka, bari mu “bi kimiyya”! 

Anan ga taƙaitaccen bayani game da ilmin halitta bayan abin da muke magana akai, idan kun riga kun ƙware sosai a cikin wannan jin daɗin ku. tsallake wannan sashe, amma yana da mahimmancin baya ga mahimmancin batun lafiyar likita.

Bari mu nutse cikin…

Ɗauki tantanin halitta daga jikin ku kuma duba shi a ƙarƙashin maƙalli mai ƙarfi. Za ka ga babban jikin tantanin halitta tare da ƴan ƙarami, tsumma a ciki, wanda ake kira da cell nucleus. Ciki cikin tsakiya duk naku ne DNA, cikakken kuma keɓaɓɓen bayanin martabar gadonku wanda ke yin lambobin "ku".

DNA shine lambar don rayuwa.

DNA yana murɗawa kuma yana ninkewa zuwa nau'i-nau'i na chromosomes. An raba chromosomes zuwa sassan DNA da aka sani da kwayoyin halitta, kuma kowace kwayar halitta tana ƙayyade takamaiman halaye. Akwai daruruwan zuwa dubunnan kwayoyin halitta a kowace chromosome.

Ka yi tunanin tsakiya a matsayin ɗakin karatu (ƙaramin da littattafai 46 ga mutane); chromosomes su ne littattafai guda ɗaya, kuma kwayoyin halitta su ne sakin layi a cikin waɗannan littattafan.

Masana kimiyya suna son abubuwa cikin tsari, don haka sun ƙidaya kowane nau'in chromosomes. Don ba ku wasu misalan, nau'in chromosome ɗaya yana da kwayar halitta wanda ke ƙayyade girman kwakwalwar ku. Ƙwayoyin chromosomes na jima'i (biyu 23) suna da kwayoyin halitta waɗanda ke ƙayyade jinsin ku.

Mutane suna da nau'i-nau'i 23 na chromosomes da 46 gaba ɗaya.

Daban-daban nau'ikan suna da lambobi daban-daban na chromosomes. Misali, beraye suna da nau'i-nau'i 20 na chromosomes kuma duka 40. A daya bangaren kuma, giwaye suna da nau'i-nau'i 28 na chromosomes tare da 56 gaba daya.

Ka tuna, chromosomes an naɗe su ne kawai na DNA…

DNA da ke shafar halayen kwayoyin halitta ana kiranta codeing DNA domin tana yin codeing ga sunadaran da ke haifar da wannan kwayar halitta (muna gina jiki ne). Genes suna yin rikodin DNA. Idan codeing DNA ya lalace, zai iya haifar da babbar illa ga kwayoyin halitta saboda an halicci sunadaran da ba daidai ba.

Ka tuna daga ajin ilmin halitta cewa sel suna rarrabuwa akai-akai?

Sel division mitosis
Yadda sel ke rarraba da kwafi DNA ɗin su.

Duk lokacin da tantanin halitta ya raba dole ne ya kwafi duk DNA ɗin da ke cikin tsakiya. A lokacin rarraba sel, Dole ne a kiyaye codeing DNA don hana maye gurbi mai haɗari.

Tsaya tare da ni, wannan zai yi ma'ana nan ba da jimawa ba!

Ba duk lambobin DNA na sunadaran ba ne, akwai kuma DNA ɗin da ba ta da code ɗin da ba ta yin code na wani abu; don haka ana yawan kiransa DNA takarce.

Junk DNA ba shi da amfani!

Ƙarshen chromosomes an kafa su ne daga DNA takarce kuma ana kiran su telomeres. Telomeres suna kare rikodin DNA na chromosomes daga lalacewa yayin rarraba tantanin halitta.

Hoto wannan:

Tsarin telomeres da aikin telomeres sun kasance kamar ƙarshen filastik na igiyar takalma wanda ke hana shi lalacewa.

Telomeres kuma kamar fiusi ne akan bam.

Sun kasance kamar fuse domin duk lokacin da tantanin halitta ya rabu kuma aka kwafi chromosomes ɗinsa yakan rasa wani ɗan ƙaramin sashi na DNA. Wannan wani sakamako ne wanda ba zai yuwu ba na tsarin da ke bayan kwafin DNA. Saboda haka, tsayin telomere da tsawon rai suna da alaƙa kai tsaye; yayin da muke tsufa telomeres suna raguwa kuma suna gajarta, amma ana kiyaye ɓangaren DNA na chromosome.

Jariri suna da dogon telomeres, amma tsofaffi suna da guntu telomeres sosai. Dogayen telomeres ne ke da alhakin samari da saurin gyara nama.

Menene telomere? - Telomeres da tsufa

Telomeres da tsufa
Yaya telomeres ke da alaƙa da tsufa? - Tsari da aikin telomeres.

Telomeres da ciwon daji

Tsawon Telomere da ciwon daji kuma suna da alaƙa.

Kowane tantanin halitta zai iya rarrabawa da maimaita DNA ɗinsa kaɗan kaɗan kafin telomeres su lalace gaba ɗaya (fis ɗin ya ƙone) - a wannan lokacin, DNA ɗin coding yanzu ta fallasa. Wannan shi ake kira da Fimar Hayflick. Yawancin sel suna iya rarraba kusan sau 40-60 kafin su kai ga wannan iyaka.

Da zarar codeing DNA ya fara lalacewa, maye gurbi mai haɗari zai iya faruwa wanda zai iya haifar da ciwon daji idan tantanin halitta ya ci gaba da rarrabuwa.

Don hana wannan, sel suna da ginanniyar “tsarin sarrafa lalacewa” wanda ke hana su rarrabuwa da zarar fis ɗin telomere ya ɓace. Ana kiran wannan tsari hankali. Da zarar tantanin halitta ya zama wayewa, sai ya daina rarrabawa kuma da gaske ba ya yin komai, kamar “kwayoyin aljanu ne”.

Rabin labarin kenan…

Hakanan yana da mahimmanci a fahimci cewa codeing DNA na iya lalacewa ta wasu hanyoyi da yawa daga mutagens, irin su ionizing radiation, kayan aikin rediyo, da wasu sinadarai. Idan DNA codeing ta tantanin halitta ya lalace daga mutagen zai iya zama cutar kansa. An yi sa'a, iyakar Hayflick ɗin sa yana hana shi yin kwafi akai-akai, wanda shine kariya daga cutar kansa. Idan tantanin halitta mai lalacewa DNA zai iya raba sau 40-60 kawai, hakan yana hana shi ƙirƙirar ƙaton ƙwayar cuta.

Ciwace-ciwacen daji rukunoni ne na sel da DNA codeing da suka lalace waɗanda suka ci gaba da rarrabuwa har abada saboda tsarin sarrafa lalacewa na senescence ya daina aiki da kyau.

Ƙirƙirar sel masu hankali shine abin da ke haifar da kyallen takarda zuwa tsufa. Misali, tarin sel fata masu hankali shine ke haifar da wrinkles da siririn fata a cikin tsufa. Yawancin sel masu hankali da nama ke da shi, sannu a hankali ya gyara kansa daga lalacewa saboda sel masu hankali ba za su iya rarraba su maye gurbin kansu ba.

A cikin sauƙi, muna da ciniki tsakanin tsufa da ciwon daji!

Ka tuna, duk ya dogara ga wannan:

Nama wanda ya ƙunshi sel masu tsayin telomeres zai ɗauki tsawon lokaci zuwa tsufa kuma zai sake farfadowa daga lalacewa a ƙimar haɓaka. Koyaya, saboda waɗannan ƙwayoyin cuta na iya ci gaba da rarrabuwa, suna da rauni ga kansa saboda ba su da wannan hanyar sarrafa lalacewa ta iyaka Hayflick.

Yaya telomeres ke da alaƙa da haɓakar ciwon daji?

Telomeres da ciwon daji
Yadda tsayin telomere zai iya shafar haɗarin ciwon daji.

MATSALA tare da kwayoyi - Batun Babba

To, me yasa kowane ɗayan wannan batun ya shafi lafiyar magunguna?

Duk yana zuwa ga beraye…

Ee, mice!

Masana kimiyya sun taɓa gaskata cewa duk beraye a matsayin jinsin suna da dogon telomere. Kipling da Cooke ne suka ruwaito a cikin 1990 cewa beraye suna da "ultra-dogon telomeres”Waɗanda suka “fi girma sau da yawa fiye da waɗanda suke a telomeres na ɗan adam.”

Binciken nasu yayi dai dai amma ga bugun:

Sama da shekaru ashirin da suka wuce, masanin halittu Bret Weinstein yayi hasashe cewa telomeres masu tsayin daka sun kasance kawai a cikin berayen da aka haifa a zaman bauta, amma berayen daji suna da tsayin telomeres na yau da kullun.

Ya yi daidai! Wannan babban bincike ne!

An tabbatar da wannan a cikin takarda ta Greider and Hemann (2000), lokacin da suka kwatanta tsayin telomere na berayen lab da na daji. Sun kammala da cewa "Tsawon Telomere ya fi guntu a ciki nau'in daji da aka samu"!

Berayen Lab suna da telomeres masu tsayi.

Berayen daji suna da tsayin telomeres na al'ada.

Weinstein da Ciszek da aka ambata a cikin hasashen iya ajiyar ajiya (Takarda ta 2002) cewa waɗannan telomeres masu tsayi da yawa sun kasance "sakamakon kiwo da ba a yi niyya ba". Sun yi imanin cewa yanayi a cikin yankunan kiwo, irin su kiwo a cikin ƙananan shekaru don ƙara yawan haifuwa (ƙwayar berayen sun yi ritaya a watanni 8) sun haifar da maye gurbi a tsawon telomere.

Tuna baya cewa dogayen telomeres daidai suke da saurin gyaran nama?

Lallai, ainihin abin da aka gano ke nan a cikin berayen lab kamar yadda shaida ta tabbata Alexander, P. (1966). Sun yi sharhi, "Abin da ya fi daukar hankali shi ne cewa ko da tsofaffin beraye (misali fiye da shekaru 2.5) lokacin da aka kashe su yayin da suke da kyau suna da ƙananan cututtuka kuma kusan ba su bambanta da kananan dabbobi" (a cikin 1966 an yi imanin wannan shine harka ga dukkan mice).

Waɗannan berayen da aka haifa a zaman talala sun kasance matasa ba bisa ka'ida ba, suna da ingantacciyar ikon gyara nama da suka lalace, kuma sun kasance masu juriya ga rauni.

Sun kasance super mice! Amma akwai ƙaramin kama…

Ƙarƙashin wannan ingantaccen ikon sake haifuwa na sel yana nufin cewa waɗannan berayen sun fi kamuwa da cutar kansa saboda ƙwayoyin su kusan ba su kai ga wayewa ba! Ba su da wannan hanyar sarrafa lalata da ke hana kansa!

Duk waɗannan berayen, idan an bar su su rayu da rayuwarsu, ba za su mutu daga tsufa ba, a maimakon haka, za su mutu daga cutar kansa.

Ga mummunan labari:

Ana amfani da waɗannan berayen da suka maye gurbinsu a cikin gwajin likita da bincike!

Idan an gwada maganin da ya haifar da lalacewar sel a kan berayen lab, wannan lalacewar na iya wucewa ba tare da an gane shi ba saboda berayen na iya gyara nama a cikin saurin da ba na dabi'a ba. Sabanin haka, saboda telomeres mai tsayin mice, kamuwa da cutar kansa zai yi girma ba bisa ka'ida ba.

Muna da yanayi na rashin ƙima na lalacewar nama da ƙima na ciwon daji.

An taƙaita wannan daidai a ƙarshen takardar Weinstein da Ciszek (2002) inda suka ba da haske mai zuwa:

"Don haka ya kamata mu sake yin la'akari da amfani da abubuwan da ake ganin ba su da lafiya da farko saboda ba su da lahani ga 'beraye'. A lokaci guda, gwajin aminci tare da berayen lab na iya yin la'akari da haɗarin kansa, wanda ke haifar da taka tsantsan game da wasu abubuwa masu mahimmanci. "

Abin takaici, babu wanda ya saurare shi, kuma masana kimiyya sun binne takarda. Magunguna na iya wucewa ta gwajin gwajin rowan tare da launuka masu tashi yayin da a zahiri za su iya haifar da lalacewar nama mai yawa.

Waɗannan magungunan na iya zama a cikin ma'aikatun likitan ku!

berayen dakin gwaje-gwaje Jackson
An gano berayen dakin gwaje-gwaje na Jackson suna da telomeres masu tsayi.

Mu zurfafa kadan…

An gano wannan rashin daidaituwar kwayoyin halitta a cikin berayen lab, kamar yadda Greider and Hemann (2000) suka buga a cikin berayen da dakin gwaje-gwaje na Jackson (JAX) ya kawo a Amurka. Lab ɗin JAX yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan masu samar da beraye na duniya ga masu bincike a duk duniya, musamman a cikin Amurka.

Amma ga wani abu mai ban sha'awa da gaske don tunani akai…

Ana iya danganta wannan binciken kai tsaye ga berayen JAX saboda sune Greider da Hemann suka gwada. Idan berayen dakin gwaje-gwaje na Jackson kadai ne kawai dakin gwaje-gwajen da suka samar da wadannan telomeres masu tsayi, wannan na iya zama bayani ga yawan yawan tunowar kwayoyi a Amurka, ganin cewa yawancin masu binciken Amurka suna kawo su ta dakin gwaje-gwaje na Jackson.

Mafi mahimmanci:

Wannan ya haifar da mafi girman batun ka'idojin kiwo da ake amfani da su ga duk dabbobin da aka baiwa masu bincike. Kiwo tsara bayan tsara na nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i)) a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje, inda ba'a iya samun matsi na zaɓi na halitta yana iya haifar da maye gurbin da ba zato ba tsammani da kuma mara kyau.

A ƙarshe, yawancin magungunan ana yin su ne don amfanin ɗan adam. ’Yan Adam sun samo asali a cikin dubban shekaru a cikin yanayi na halitta, ba dakin gwaje-gwaje ba.

Gwajin magunguna akan dabbobin da suka sami sauye-sauyen da ba na dabi'a ba daga kiwo na dakin gwaje-gwajen da aka kama babu shakka maras kyau kuma samfuri mai haɗari don gwajin magunguna da rigakafin.

Mutane ba su da telomeres mai tsayi mai tsayi kuma ba mu da iyakacin iyaka don gyara nama, duk da haka an gwada wasu magungunan da muke sha ba da gangan ba akan dabbobin da suke yi!

Wannan ruɓaɓɓen kimiyya ne!

Me yasa beraye ke da mahimmanci? - Amfanin gwajin dabba akan kananan rodents

Wataƙila kuna tambaya…

Me yasa mice ke da mahimmanci yayin gwajin magungunan dabbobi kuma akan manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa?

Wannan rashin fahimta ce ta gama gari. Yawancin lokaci, duk magungunan ana gwada su akan beraye (da sauran ƙananan rodents), kuma ko da yake akwai matsaloli tare da amfani da beraye a cikin bincike, suna kuma ba da fa'ida ta musamman ga gwajin lafiyar ƙwayoyi.

Ga dalilin da ya sa:

Ƙananan dabbobi kamar beraye sun kara zagayowar rayuwa sau da yawa sauri fiye da manyan dabbobi da mutane. Don sanya shi a cikin hangen zaman gaba, Dutta and Sengupta (2015) "sun gano cewa shekara ɗaya ta mutum tana daidai da kwanakin mice tara".

Beraye suna da amfani musamman don gano tasirin magunguna na dogon lokaci waɗanda in ba haka ba za su ɗauki shekaru ana iya gani akan manyan dabbobi.

Wannan shine dalilin da ya sa gwajin dabba ya zama dole!

A lokacin gwajin magani, masana kimiyya sukan ba wa kananan rodents magunguna masu yawa a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci. Abin da ake tsammani shine cewa duk wani sakamako mai illa zai iya zama abin da dabba mafi girma ko ɗan adam zai fuskanta na dogon lokaci akan ƙananan allurai.

Wannan fassarar shaidar bincike daga dabbobi zuwa ga mutane ba ta da hankali, amma a ka'idar, ƙananan berayen suna ba da damar masana kimiyya su leƙa nan gaba don ganin tasirin magani na dogon lokaci.

Ka yi tunani game da shi…

Ɗauki magani wanda ke haifar da lalacewa a hankali kuma yana ɗaukar shekaru don nunawa. Wannan zai wuce gwaji akan manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa amma zai iya kasawa akan beraye saboda saurin yanayin rayuwarsu.

Wannan yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan fa'idodin gwajin dabbobi akan ƙananan rodents, saboda yana iya zama hanya ɗaya tilo don kawar da yuwuwar lalacewar dogon lokaci da magunguna ke haifarwa.

Magungunan da ke haifar da rauni ga beraye cikin sauri zai iya nuna yiwuwar rauni na dogon lokaci ga ɗan adam wanda zai ɗauki shekaru masu yawa don nunawa.

Za ku iya jin wannan wasan wasa yana danna tare yanzu?

Lokacin da berayen lab suna da tsayin telomeres ba bisa ka'ida ba kuma suna iya gyara lalacewar tantanin halitta a cikin sauri mai saurin gaske, duk samfurin gano illolin na dogon lokaci ya rabu!

Magunguna na iya wucewa gwajin beraye kawai saboda beraye na iya gyara yuwuwar lalacewar tantanin halitta da sauri don masana kimiyya su lura.

Sai dai har sai an amince da wannan maganin don amfanin ɗan adam kuma mutane suna shan shi tsawon shekaru masu yawa, illar da ta daɗe ta fara bayyana. Wannan zai bayyana dalilin da yasa ake tunawa da yawancin kwayoyi shekaru da yawa bayan an yarda da su.

A lokacin, ya yi latti! An rasa rayuka, ana tunawa da miyagun ƙwayoyi, kuma FDA ta ce "oops"!

Sa'an nan kuma sake zagayowar!

Mouse vs yanayin rayuwar ɗan adam
Mouse vs. yanayin rayuwar ɗan adam.

Mummunan abubuwa da FDA ta amince da su - Misalai masu ban tsoro

Akwai magungunan FDA da yawa da aka amince da su waɗanda aka taɓa ganin lafiya da tasiri waɗanda yanzu aka san su zama masu mutuwa.

Jerin gazawar FDA ya dade amma ga wasu daga cikin misalan misalan da suka fi jin daɗi waɗanda wataƙila za a iya danganta su ga cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin gwajin dabbobi.

Anan ga wasu munanan bala'o'in magunguna a tarihi…

Cerivastatin cirewa

Lipobay cerivastatin cirewa
Lipobay (cerivastatin) ya haifar da rhabdomyolysis, saurin rushewar tsokar kwarangwal.

Maganin da ya cinye mutane da rai:

Ɗaya daga cikin mafi haɗari da aka yarda da magungunan FDA shine cerivastatin, wanda kuma aka sani da sunansa Lipobay, wanda ya kasance statin roba.

Statins an wajabta ko'ina a duniya a matsayin mafi yawan nau'ikan magungunan da ake amfani da su don rage cholesterol a cikin mutane masu haɗarin cututtukan zuciya. A Amurka, likitoci sukan ba da izini akai-akai 200 miliyan statins a kowace shekara.

Kamfanin magunguna na Bayer ya sayar da Lipobay a ƙarshen 1990s. An cire shi daga kasuwannin duniya a shekara ta 2001 saboda yawancin asarar rayuka da aka ruwaito. An gano cewa galibin wadanda suka mutu na daga mutuwa ne rhabdomyolysis sanadin maganin. Rhabdomyolysis wani yanayi ne mai barazanar rai wanda ke haifar da saurin rushewar tsoka.

Lipobay a zahiri yana haifar da tsokoki na marasa lafiya su tarwatse!

Lokacin da ƙwayar tsoka ta lalace, takan saki furotin da ake kira myoglobin cikin jini wanda dole ne kodan su cire. A cikin adadi mai yawa, koda ba za su iya tace myoglobin cikin sauri ba, wanda zai iya haifar da lalacewar koda, kuma a lokuta masu tsanani, gazawar koda kuma a ƙarshe mutuwa.

Yawancin mace-mace tsakanin marasa lafiyar Lipobay sun faru ne ta hanyar rhabdomyolysis da sakamakon gazawar koda. An gano cewa rhabdomyolysis da statins ya haifar 16 zuwa 80 sau mafi girma ga Lipobay idan aka kwatanta da sauran statins.

Ta yaya wannan ya faru?

Za mu iya yin hasashe kawai, amma yana da hankali a kammala cewa ba a taɓa ganin wannan saurin rugujewar tsoka ba yayin gwajin dabbobi da ɗan adam. Ba a lura da mummunan sakamako ba har sai bayan shekaru bayan an amince da Lipobay.

Jarabawar asibiti a kan mutane da alama ta yi tafiya cikin sauƙi kamar yadda lokacin ya yi gajere sosai don ganin wannan tasirin. Koyaya, watakila rhabdomyolysis zai bayyana a cikin gwaje-gwajen mice saboda haɓakar yanayin rayuwarsu.

Abin baƙin ciki shine, berayen da ke da telomeres masu tsawo ba bisa ka'ida ba za su sake haifar da ƙwayar tsoka da lalacewar koda da sauri ta yadda wannan sakamako na gefe ba zai iya yiwuwa ba.

Shin za a iya guje wa wannan bala'in idan an yi gwajin dabba akan berayen "al'ada" ba rikitattun halittun dakin gwaje-gwaje ba?

Misali ɗaya ne kawai, akwai da yawa, da yawa ƙarin magungunan FDA da aka amince da su waɗanda suka gaza.

Rigimar Vioxx

Akwai dogayen jerin magunguna da bai kamata su shiga kasuwa ba.

Ɗaya daga cikin shahararrun tunawa da miyagun ƙwayoyi shine rofecoxib, wanda aka fi sani da suna Vioxx, wani maganin da ba na steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) da aka yi amfani da shi don magance cututtukan cututtuka da ciwo mai tsanani. An tuna da Vioxx saboda rahotanni na lalacewar zuciya wanda ya haifar da haɗarin ciwon zuciya da bugun jini.

Wataƙila Vioxx ya haifar da lalacewar tantanin halitta ga sassa da yawa na jiki amma an lura da shi azaman lalacewar zuciya saboda ƙwayoyin zuciya suna da ƙarancin ikon haɓakawa.

Ya kamata a gano lalacewar tantanin halitta da Vioxx ya haifar yayin gwajin rodent, amma saboda wasu dalilai, ba a gano ta ba.

Bextra tuna

Irin wannan magani zuwa Vioxx akan jerin tunowar FDA shine valdecoxib, wanda aka fi sani da sunansa Bextra. Kamar Vioxx, Bextra wani NSAID ne da aka yi amfani da shi don maganin arthritis.

An amince da Bextra a cikin Nuwamba 2001 ta FDA. An sake tunawa a cikin Afrilu 2005, kusan shekaru hudu bayan haka. FDA ta ambaci dalilan tunawa da kasancewa "haɗari mai yuwuwar haɗarin cututtukan zuciya da jijiyoyin jini (CV) mara kyau" da "ƙarin haɗarin halayen fata mai tsanani", gami da. Ciwon Stevens-Johnson.

Tunawa da Bextra ya haifar da cin tara mafi girma na kowane irin laifi!

Kamfanin magunguna Dole ne Pfizer ya biya tarar da ta tarar dala biliyan 1.3 na laifin karya sunan maganin "da nufin zamba ko yaudara". Pfizer kuma ya biya dala biliyan 1 na diyya.

Kawai bari wannan gaskiyar ta nutse cikin…

Babban tarar masu laifi da aka taɓa biya a tarihi ita ce ta kamfanin miyagun ƙwayoyi!

Ciwon Stevens-Johnson
An gano Bextra don haifar da cututtukan fata Stevens-Johnson ciwo.

Rezulin tuna

Hakanan akan jerin manyan gazawar FDA…

Troglitazone, alamar alama Rezulin, an yi amfani da shi don maganin ciwon sukari kuma wani lamari ne na maganin da ke haifar da lalata gabobin jiki. Musamman, Rezulin ya haifar da lalacewar hanta.

Da farko, bayan rahotanni da yawa na gazawar hanta kwatsam a cikin marasa lafiya da ke shan miyagun ƙwayoyi, FDA ta ba da gargaɗin da ke buƙatar kulawa kowane wata na matakan enzyme hanta a cikin marasa lafiya.

Wannan abin ban mamaki ne:

Sai da wani majiyyaci mai shekaru 55 ya mutu sakamakon gazawar hanta mai tsanani bayan ya dauki Rezulin a matsayin wani bangare na binciken da Cibiyar Kula da Lafiya ta Kasa (NIH) ta sanyawa ido aka yi tambaya ko saka idanu kan matakan enzyme ya isa.

NIH ta watsar da maganin daga binciken, kuma jim kadan bayan haka wani masanin cututtukan cututtukan FDA wanda ya kimanta Rezulin ya kiyasta cewa ana iya danganta shi da gazawar hanta sama da 430. Sun gano cewa marasa lafiya suna da 1,200 sau haɗarin gazawar hanta yayin shan miyagun ƙwayoyi.

Ranar 21 ga Maris, 2000, FDA ta ƙarshe ta tuna da Rezulin bayan ya kasance a kasuwa fiye da shekaru uku.

Shin za a iya hana janyewar Rezulin idan an gano lalacewar hanta yayin gwajin rodent?

Waɗannan kwayoyi ne kawai ƙaramin samfurin jerin jerin magungunan da aka amince da FDA waɗanda daga baya aka sake tunawa, amma sun nuna yadda ake yarda da kwayoyi sannan kuma a tuna da su shekaru da yawa bayan haka (da kuma rayuka da yawa daga baya) lokacin da sakamako masu illa na dogon lokaci suka fara haɓaka mummuna. kai.

A cikin bayani:

Duk wani mummunan lamari na magani da ake tunowa saboda wani nau'i na lalacewar gabobin jiki/nama mai yuwuwa ana iya hana shi idan an gudanar da gwajin rowan akan nau'in halitta na yau da kullun. Daga yanayin gwajin ƙwayoyi, beraye da ƙananan rodents dukiya ne masu kima amma kawai idan suna wakiltar yanayi.

Don kara muni…

Menene game da adadin magungunan da za a iya amfani da su da ƙila an yi watsi da su saboda ana kallon su a matsayin ƙara haɗarin ciwon daji a cikin berayen da suka riga sun kamu da ciwon daji!?

Ina tsammanin ba za mu taɓa sanin amsar wannan tambayar ba.

Magunguna lafiya? - Me za mu iya yi yanzu?

Magunguna lafiya

Sakon a bayyane yake:

Gabaɗayan tsarin kimanta tasiri da aminci na miyagun ƙwayoyi yana da lahani sosai. Kimiyyar masana'antar harhada magunguna ta lalace!

Ko da ba tare da sanin ilimin kimiyya ba, duban yawancin magungunan FDA da aka yarda da su da aka tuna shine tabbataccen tabbaci cewa wani abu ba daidai ba ne.

Abin baƙin ciki, da gaske akwai ɗimbin jerin magungunan da aka amince da FDA waɗanda ke kashewa kuma sun lalata iyalai.

Ba lallai ba ne a ce, kimiyya ta yi matukar amfani ga jinsin ’yan Adam, amma ba cikakke ba ne, ko kuma watakila mafi daidai, masana kimiyya ba kamiltattu ba ne. Tambayar kimiyya ba ta sanya ku “anti-kimiyya” ba, yana ba ku ƙwararrun ilimantarwa saboda abin da kimiyya ke nufi ke nan.

Masana kimiyya suna tambayar binciken da suka gabata, suna yin hasashe sannan su gwada shi. Domin kafofin watsa labarun kamfanoni da gwamnatoci su kira mutane "anti-kimiyya" lokacin da suka tambayi a alurar riga kafi ingantaccen bayani mahaukaci ne. Wato “anti-kimiyya”!

Wataƙila ya kamata masu bincike su yi tsammanin cewa manyan shirye-shiryen kiwo na rodent na iya haifar da bambance-bambancen kwayoyin halitta waɗanda ba za su faru a yanayi ba, amma abin da ke da mahimmanci yanzu shine yarda da kuskure da gyara shi.

Duk da haka a cikin masana'antar da riba ke motsawa, shin Big Pharma amintacce ne ya isa ya yarda da kuskure?

Abin takaici, amsar ita ce a'a, kuma a bayyane yake daga gazawar FDA da suka gabata cewa kamfanonin magunguna za su yi wani abu a cikin ikonsu don hana babban tunawa. Sun gwammace su ce “yi hakuri” kuma su biya diyya kadan ga wadanda abin ya shafa fiye da yarda da kuma kawar da batun.

Akwai yuwuwar samun ɗaruruwa, har ma da dubban magunguna masu haɗari waɗanda suka zame ta hanyar yanar gizo saboda ƙarancin gwajin rowan. Ƙoƙarin sake dubawa da yuwuwar tunawa da wannan girman na iya rushe kowane kamfani na magunguna a duniya - amma lafiyar marasa lafiya ya fi mahimmanci!

Amma me za ku iya yi?

Ilimi iko ne, kuma ilmantar da jama'a da 'yan jarida game da ilimin kimiyyar da ke tattare da wannan batu shine mataki na farko. Tare da isassun mutane an sanar da su, 'yan majalisa na iya saurara daga ƙarshe, kuma tsoma bakin gwamnati na iya yin tasiri.

Ya wuce gare ku, ba ku da ƙarfi, intanet yana ba kowa damar muryar da za ta iya kaiwa miliyoyin. Ka ba wa wannan labarin SHARE, gaya wa duk wanda ka sani, kuma kada ka daina har sai abubuwa sun canza.

"Ka kasance canjin da kake son gani a duniya!"

Muna bukatar taimakon ku! Mun kawo muku labaran da ba a tantance ba FREE, amma za mu iya yin wannan kawai godiya ga goyon bayan masu karatu masu aminci kamar haka KA! Idan kun yi imani da 'yancin magana kuma kuna jin daɗin labarai na gaske, da fatan za a yi la'akari da tallafawa aikin mu ta zama majiɓinci ko ta hanyar yin a gudummawar lokaci ɗaya a nan20% na ALL ana ba da gudummawar kudade tsoffin sojoji!

Wannan labarin da aka bayyana ba zai yiwu ba ne kawai godiya ga masu tallafa mana da abokan cinikinmu! Danna nan don duba su kuma samun wasu keɓancewar ciniki daga masu ɗaukar nauyin mu!

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MARUBUCI BIO

Hoton marubuci Richard Ahern LifeLine Media CEO

Richard Ahern
Shugaba na LifeLine Media
Richard Ahern Shugaba ne, dan kasuwa, mai saka jari, kuma mai sharhi kan harkokin siyasa. Yana da ƙwarewa a cikin kasuwanci, wanda ya kafa kamfanoni da yawa, kuma yana yin aikin shawarwari akai-akai don samfuran duniya. Yana da zurfin ilimin tattalin arziki, wanda ya shafe shekaru da yawa yana nazarin wannan batu da kuma zuba jari a kasuwannin duniya.
Yawancin lokaci za ku iya samun Richard tare da binne kansa a cikin littafi, yana karanta game da ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan sha'awa, ciki har da siyasa, ilimin halin dan Adam, rubuce-rubuce, tunani, da kimiyyar kwamfuta; a wata ma’ana, shi dan iska ne.
email: [email kariya] Instagram: @Richard.Ahern Twitter: @RichardJAhern

Koma zuwa saman shafi.

By Richard Ahern - MediaLine Media

Contact: [email kariya]

An buga: 16 Fabrairu 2022

Ƙarshe na ƙarshe: 16 Fabrairu 2022

References (garanti na gaskiya):

  1. Kididdigar Tunawa da Magunguna na FDA: https://www.maylightfootlaw.com/blogs/fda-drug-recall-statistics/ [Kididdiga ta hukuma]
  2. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Deoxyribonucleic-Acid [Gwamnati Yanar Gizo]
  3. Mitosis / sassan cell: https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/mitosis-cell-division-47/ [Jarida ta ilimi/shafin yanar gizo]
  4. Shari'ar DNA ta Junk: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014423/ [Jarida ta ilimi/shafin yanar gizo]
  5. Telomeres, salon rayuwa, ciwon daji, da tsufa: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3370421/ [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  6. Iyakar Hayflick: https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/hayflick-limit#:~:text=The%20Hayflick%20Limit%20is%20a,programmed%20cell%20death%20or%20apoptosis. [Jarida ta ilimi/shafin yanar gizo]
  7. Senescence da tsufa: Dalilai, Sakamako, da hanyoyin warkewa: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5748990/ [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  8. Mutagens na Muhalli, Siginar salula da Gyaran DNA: https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/environmental-mutagens-cell-signalling-and-dna-repair-1090/ [Jarida ta ilimi/shafin yanar gizo]
  9. Matsakaicin telomeres mai tsayi mai tsayi a cikin beraye: https://www.nature.com/articles/347400a0 [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  10. Bret Weinstein akan "The Portal" (w/ mai masaukin baki Eric Weinstein), Ep. #019 - Hasashen da DISC: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLb5hZLw44s [Madogara daga tushe] 
  11. Ƙwayoyin linzamin kwamfuta waɗanda aka samo daga daji suna da gajeriyar telomeres: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11071935/ [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  12. Hasashen ƙarfin ajiyar ajiya: asalin juyin halitta da abubuwan zamani na ciniki tsakanin ciwace-ciwace da gyaran nama: https://www.gwern.net/docs/longevity/2002-weinstein.pdf [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  13. Alexander, P., 1966. Shin akwai dangantaka tsakanin tsufa, rage tsawon rayuwa ta hanyar radiation da shigar da maye gurbi?: Hanyoyi a cikin Gwajin Gerontology. shafi na 266-279. [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  14. Maza da beraye: Dangane da shekarun su: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26596563/ [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  15. Cerivastatin: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Cerivastatin [Jarida ta ilimi/shafin yanar gizo]  
  16. Halin Ƙasa a Amfani da Statin da Kashe Kuɗi a cikin Yawan Manya na Amurka Daga 2002 zuwa 2013: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2583425 [Kididdiga ta hukuma]
  17. Rhabdomyolysis: Pathogenesis, Bincike, da Jiyya: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4365849/ [Takardar bincike-bincike na ɗan adam]
  18. Samfuran bayanin magunguna na asibiti na rhabdomyolysis mai alaƙa da cerivastatin: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1563-258X.2003.03029.x [Jarida ta ilimi/shafin yanar gizo]
  19. Vioxx (rofecoxib) Tambayoyi da Amsoshi: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/vioxx-rofecoxib-questions-and-answers#:~:text=Vioxx%20is%20a%20COX%2D2,3. [Gwamnati Yanar Gizo]
  20. Valdecoxib: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valdecoxib [Babban hukuma da amintaccen gidan yanar gizo] {Ƙarin karatu}
  21. Stevens-Johnson ciwo / mai guba epidermal necrolysis: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7700/stevens-johnson-syndrometoxic-epidermal-necrolysis [Gwamnati Yanar Gizo]
  22. US v. Pfizer, Inc. - Yarjejeniyar Matsala: https://www.justice.gov/usao-ma/press-release/file/1066111/download [Takardar kotu ta hukuma]
  23. Rezulin: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/1999/20720s12lbl.pdf [Gwamnati Yanar Gizo]
  24. Troglitazone: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troglitazone [Babban hukuma da amintaccen gidan yanar gizo] {Ƙarin karatu}

Siyasa

Sabbin labarai da ba a tantance su ba da ra'ayoyin mazan jiya a cikin Amurka, Burtaniya, da siyasar duniya.

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Pansy Abbas
Pansy Abbas
26 kwanaki da suka wuce

Ina samun dala 90 a kowace awa ina aiki daga gida. Ban taba tunanin cewa gaskiya ce ga alheri ba duk da haka abokina na kusa yana samun $16,000 a wata ta yin aiki a kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka, abin ya ba ni mamaki kwarai da gaske, ta umarce ni da in gwada shi kawai. Dole ne kowa ya gwada wannan aikin yanzu ta hanyar amfani da wannan labarin.. http://Www.Works75.Com

Kwanaki 26 da suka wuce ta Pansy Abbas
Cat Edwards
Cat Edwards
2 days ago

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An sabunta ta ƙarshe watanni 2 da suka gabata ta Cat Edwards
Dreda Fairburn
Dreda Fairburn
2 days ago

Ina samun dala 90 a kowace awa ina aiki daga gida. Ban taba tunanin cewa gaskiya ce ga alheri ba duk da haka abokina na kusa yana samun $16,000 a wata ta yin aiki a kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka, abin ya ba ni mamaki kwarai da gaske, ta umarce ni da in gwada shi kawai. Dole ne kowa ya gwada wannan aikin a yanzu

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Editan ƙarshe watanni 2 da suka gabata ta Dreda Fairburn
Wolton
Wolton
3 days ago

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Ana gyara na ƙarshe watanni 3 da suka gabata ta Wolton
juliya
juliya
3 days ago

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Wolton
Wolton
3 days ago

Ana biyan ni sama da $190 a kowace awa ina aiki daga gida tare da yara 2 a gida. Ban taba tunanin zan iya yin hakan ba amma babban abokina yana samun sama da 15k a wata yana yin wannan kuma ta shawo kan ni na gwada. yuwuwar wannan ba ta da iyaka…, <(")
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Ana gyara na ƙarshe watanni 3 da suka gabata ta Wolton
juliya
juliya
3 days ago

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MaryLuther
MaryLuther
4 days ago

[ SHIGA MU ]
Tun da na fara kasuwanci ta kan layi ina samun $90 kowane minti 15. Yana jin rashin imani amma ba za ku gafarta wa kanku ba idan ba ku bincika ba.
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Becky Thurmond ne adam wata
Becky Thurmond ne adam wata
4 days ago

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Gyaran ƙarshe watanni 4 da suka gabata ta Becky Thurmond
jasmin ruwan inabi
jasmin ruwan inabi
4 days ago

Samun ƙarin kuɗi kowane wata daga gida sama da $26k tabbas tare da albarkatun yin amfani da kwafi mai laushi da liƙa kamar sha'awar kan layi. A zahiri na karɓi $18636 daga wannan tsaftataccen sha'awar gida Kowa yanzu zai iya yin ƙarin kuɗi akan layi ba tare da matsala tare da albarkatun amfanin ...... https://salarybaar234.blogspot.com

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